Recurrent Miscarriage & Immunological Infertility

Recurrent miscarriage or habitual abortion is a rather vast subject. A miscarriage is the early loss of a pregnancy which accounts for 10-20% of clinical pregnancy. Eight to ten percent of pregnant women lose their pregnancies in the first 12 weeks while two percent between 12 to 24 weeks of gestation. The rest will be among other forms of abortion like ectopic pregnancy, chemical pregnancy or pregnancy of unknown location.

Immunological infertility tends to overlap in its presentation with early pregnancy loss and therefore the specialized investigations are similarly overlapping.

After taking the history for the condition to verify and to differentiate between mechanical and non-mechanical the causes for the pregnancy loss or inability to conceive, the battery of tests are applied. X-ray cervical hysterosalpingogram is performed to exclude cervical incompetence in the cases of after 12 weeks miscarriages and to check the soundness of the uterus and the fallopian tubes in the advent of ectopic pregnancy. Following that the detailed specialized investigations are required.

At The British Clinic we have all the facilities and affiliations with international laboratories to conduct these specialized tests.

The following blood tests are done and the interpretations and explanations of its value and the possible treatment are provided.

1.  Chromosome analysis (Blood)
2.  Cardiolipin Abs IgG, IgM
3.  Lupus anticoagulant
4.  Prothrombin Time
5.  Partial Thromboplastin Time
6.  FT3, FT4, TSH
7.  Anti-phospholipid  IgG, IgM
8.  Anti-Thrombin III
9.   Factor V Leiden Mutation
10. Protein C
11. Protein S Clotting Assay
12. Homocystine

13. Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA)

14. Immune Function Assays by Flow Cytometry


    1. NK Cell Cytotoxicity Assay
    2. TH1/TH2 Intracellular Cytokine Ratio
    3. Reproductive Immunophenotype
    4. Immunodeficiency Panel
    5. Leukocyte Antibody Detection
    6. Platelet Auto-Antibodies (Free & Bound)

15. Anti-Beta 2 Glycoprotein I Antibodies
16. Anti-DNA Antibodies Profile

    1. ANTI-ss DNA
    2. ANTI-ds DNA
    3. ANTI HISTONES
    4. ANTI SCL 70


17. ANTI EXTRACTABLE NUCLEAR ANTIBODIES PROFILE

    1. ANTI RO/SSA
    2. ANTI LA/SSB
    3. ANTI RNP
    4. ANTI SM


18. IMMUNOGENETICS

    1. HLA DQa ALLELES
    2. HLA DQb ALLELES
    3. HLA A, B, C ALLELES
    4. HLA DR ALLELES

19. INHERITED THROMBOPHILIA (GENE POLYMORPHISMS)

    1. FACTOR V H1299A (HR2) MUTATION
    2. MTHFR C677T MUTATION
    3. MTHFR A1298C MUTATION
    4. PROTHROMBIN G20210A MUTATION
    5. HPA-1A/1B MUTATION
    6. b-FIBRINOGEN G455 A MUTATION
    7. FACTOR XIII V34L MUTATION

20. DRVVT RATIO (Dilute Russell’s viper venom)
21. ANTI-Thyroidperoxidase

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